Architecture and disjunction pdf

 

    narledikupttemp.cf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. Architecture and Disjunction - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Architecture and Disjunction. Page 1. Tschumi, Bernard. Architecture and Disjunction. MIT Press, Print. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page

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    Architecture And Disjunction Pdf

    This books (Architecture and Disjunction [PDF]) Made by Bernard Tschumi About Books Paperback book To Download Please Click. DOWNLOAD PDF. Report this file. Description. Download Bernard Tschumi - Architecture and Disjunction Free in pdf format. Avant-garde theorist and architect Bernard Tschumi is equally well known for his writing and his practice. Architecture and Disjunction, which brings together.

    Marko Radovic Bernard Tschumi - Six Concepts Excerpt from Architecture and Disjunction CONCEPT I: Technologies of Defamiliarization In the mids small pockets of resistance began to form as architects in various parts of the world -- England, Austria, the United States, Japan for the most part, in advanced postindustrial cultures -- started to take advantage of this condition of fragmentation and superficiality and to turn it against itself. If the prevalent ideology was one of familiarity -- familiarity with known images, derived from s modernism or eighteenth century classicism -- maybe one's role was to defamiliarize. If the new, mediated world echoed and reinforced our dismantled reality, maybe, just maybe, one should take advantage of such dismantling, celebrate fragmentation by celebrating the culture of differences, by accelerating and intensifying the loss of certainty, of center, of history. If the design of windows only reflects the superficiality of the skin's decoration, we might very well start to look for a way to do without windows. If the design of pillars reflects the conventionality of a supporting frame, maybe we might get rid of pillars altogether. Although the architects concerned might not profess an inclination towards the exploration of new technologies, such work usually took advantage of contemporary technological developments. Interestingly, the specific technologies -- air-conditioning or the construction of lightweight structures or computer modes of calculation -- have yet to be theorized in architectural culture. I stress this because other technological advances, such as the invention of the elevator or the nineteenth century development of steel construction, have been the subject of countless studies by historians, but very little such work exists in terms of contemporary technologies because these technologies do not necessarily produce historical forms.

    Yet the most radical moments of concluded by proposing a form of subversive analysis that twentieth-century art, literature, or film could not be absent would use environmental knowledge to accelerate radical from a complete questioning of society.

    From the Futurists change. It would reveal the absurdity of our current condition to Dada and the Surrealists, a whole range of precedents as well as precipitate the downfall of the most socially re- fascinated us. Anatole Kopp had also just published his cel- pressive aspects of our culture and cities. However, the ex- ebrated City and Revolution on the different movements amples I gave at the time showed an optimistic view of the that followed the uprisings.

    As I write today, the urban con- I was starting to realize that the old revolu- flicts in Northern Ireland have certainly not led to "new tionary concept of "taking advantage of the internal contra- social organizations through the illuminating effects of en- dictions of society" was applicable to architecture andI in vironmental actions. The internal contra- Introduction 14 15 Introduction dictions of architecture had been there all along; they were insert both programmatic and spatial concerns within the part of its very nature: architecture was about two mutually architectural discourse as well as within its representation.

    The -criticism, and film theory among them-were confirming interplay between space and activities appeared to me as a those first intuitions.

    Allies could be found in those other possible route to bypass some of the obstacles that accom- fields who would help demonstrate what I perceived as blind- panied many anxieties about the social and political role of ing evidence: architecture was, by definition, by nature, dis- architecture.

    From Foucault to Barthes, from the ac- Indeed, any political discussion by critics and tivities of Sollers and the Tel Quel group to the rediscovery historians about the making of architecture had generally of Bataille, Joyce, or Burroughs, from the film theories focused on the formal or physical aspects of buildings and of Eisenstein and Vertov to the experiments of Welles and cities, rarely raising the question of the events that took place Godard, from conceptual art to Acconci's early perfor- in them.

    Just as the detournement, or rebellious use, of the mances, an enormous body of work was helping to substan- urban physical framework had led to various types of urban tiate the evidence of architecture's dissociations. Those who upheaval, could the use and misuse of the architectural space say that architecture is impure if it must borrow its argu- lead to a new architecture? Over the next decade I kept ments from other disciplines not only forget the inevitable exploring the implications of what had first been intuitions: interferences of culture, economy, and politics but also un- a that there is no cause-and-effect relationship between the derestimate the ability of architecture to accelerate the work- concept of space and the experience of space, or between ings of culture by contributing to its polemic.

    As practice buildings and their uses, or space and the movement of bodies and as theory, architecture must import and export. It is striking to notice, for Just as inherent oppositions had been iden- example, the respective interpretations of postmodernism in tified between the urban framework and social movements, the separate fields of art and architecture, whereby postmod- comparable oppositions could be witnessed between archi- ernism in architecture became associated with an identifi- tectural space and its many possible uses.

    By arguing that able style, while in art it meant a critical practice. As I had written in the introduction to The Manhattan Transcripts: not only to expand architectural concepts but also to nego- tiate the relationship between the cultural practice of archi- In architecture, concepts can either precede or follow proj- tecture and the interrelated spheres of politics, literature, or ects or buildings.

    In other words, a theoretical concept may the arts. In no way was I interested in translating or trans- be either applied to a project or derived from it.

    Quite often posing literary or film motives into architecture. Quite the this distinction cannot be made so clearly, when, for ex- contrary. But I also needed these allies to support a key ample, a certain aspect of film theory may support an architectural argument. The research in other fields corrob- architectural intuition, and later, through the arduous de- orated my view that the inherent disjunction of architecture velopment of a project, be transformed into an operative was its strength and its subversive power; that the disjunc- concept for architecture in general.

    Architecture, then, could not only import certain Architecture's inherent confrontation of notions from other disciplines but could also export its find- space and use and the inevitable disjunction of the two terms means that architecture is constantly unstable, constantly ings into the production of culture. In this sense, architecture on the verge of change. It is paradoxical that three thousand could be considered as a form of knowledge comparable to years of architectural ideology have tried to assert the very mathematics or philosophy.

    It could explore and expand the opposite: that. It could also be intensely social and political, as architecture could not be separated from its very dation. I would claim that architecture was used "a contre- emploi", against and despite itself, as society tried to employ use. Simultaneously, I tried to develop these con- it as a means to stabilize, to institutionalize, to establish permanence. Of course, this prevailing ideology meant that cepts through other means-the drawings of The Manhattan architecture had to ignore the other terms of its equation Transcripts, the multiple and discontinuous buildings of i.

    This is indeed one of ' the architectural spaces that enclosed them. Few can decide what a school or a library livan's "form follows function. Whether cultural or commercial, programs have have seen architecture as a means by which institutions long ceased to be determinate, since they change all the could manifest and solidify their presence in society. In doing time-while the building is designed, during its construc- so, the disjunction between various terms of the architec- tion, and, of course, after completion.

    At the Pare de la tural equation-space, program, movement-had been sup- Villette, one building was first designed as a gardening center, pressed. Not to include the uncertainties of use, action, and then reorganized as a restaurant by the time the concrete movement in the definition of architecture meant that the framework was completed, and finally used-successfully- architecture's ability to be a factor of social change was sim- as a children's painting and sculpture workshop.

    What has been true for very large buildings Similarly, the most significant so-called de- the ever-changing use of warehouses or of the new genera- constructive architectural challenges against order, hierar- tion of American "big footprint" skyscrapers also applies to chy, and stability in the last two decades have been praised the smallest constructions.

    There is no longer a causal rela- or attacked by critics for what they called a "style" or the tionship between buildings and their contentI their useI andI "pursuit of aesthetic experimentation. Space and its usage unwittingly at risk of ignoring, not to say suppressing, the are two opposed notions that exclude one another, generating underlying discussion about program and use in this work, an endless array of uncertainties.

    Not unlike developments and, by extension, about the larger social, political, and even in modern scientific knowledge that dismantled the me- economic implications of architecture. By downplaying the chanistic and determinate vision of classical scienceI here programmatic dimension, they were repeating what they had we see disorder, collisions, and unpredictabilities entering accused others of doing in staging the International the field of architecture.

    Not only is there no simple relation the new developments in architecture reside. Yet we should remember that there is spaces through new technology and structures, or-to use no social or political change without the movements and the title of a conference at Columbia University-through programs that transgress supposedly stable institutionality, "glue and microchips" and events through new program- architectural or otherwise; that there is no architecture with- matic, functional, or social relations, through the spectacle out everyday life, movement, and action; and that it is the of everyday life.

    One argument for the interchangeability of most dynamic aspects of their disjunctions that suggest a the two terms can be found in the new media technology new definition of architecture.

    The definition of architecture as simulta- neously space and event brings us back to political concerns, or more precisely, to the question of space as related to social practice. If architecture is neither pure form nor solely de- termined by socioeconomic or functional constraints, the search for its definition must always expand to an urban dimension. The complex social, economic, and political mechanisms that govern the expansion and contraction of the contemporary city are not without effect on architecture and its societal use.

    Space always marks the territory, the milieu of social practice. Would we ever wish it to do so, our society could not get out of its space.

    Even though it produces space, society is always its prisoner. Because space is the common framework for all activities, it is often used politi- cally in order to give an appearance of coherence through the concealment of its social contradictions.

    The contemporary world is a dislocated space of constraints that may find few com- 22 23 Space essays written in and Fireworks, Manifesto, Most people concerned with architecture feel some sort of disillusion and dismay. None of the early utopian ideals of the twentieth century has materialized, none of its social aims has succeeded.

    Blurred by reality, the ideals have turned into redevelopment nightmares and the aims into bureau- cratic policies. The split between social reality and utopian dream has been total, the gap between economic constraints and the illusion of all-solving technique absolute.

    Pointed Space - out by critics who knew the limits of architectural remedies, means of escaping the paradox by shifting the actual nature this historical split has now been bypassed by attempts to of the debate, as, for example, through politics, and the means reformulate the concepts of architecture.

    In the process, a that alter the paradox altogether the Pyramid and the new split appears. More complex, it is not the symptom of Labyrinth. Etymologically, to define space means both "to make tecture and of its essential element: space.

    By focusing on space distinct" and "to state the precise nature of space. While art and architecture have been con- ity of questioning the nature of space and at the same time cerned essentially with the first sense, philosophy, mathe- experiencing a spatial praxis. I have no intention of reviewing architectural trends and terial thing in which all material things are located" or as their connection to the arts. My general emphasis on space "something subjective with which the mind categorizes rather than on disciplines art, architecture, semiology, etc.

    The merg- tradition according to which space and time were "cate- ing of disciplines is too worn a path to provide a stimulating gories" that enabled the classification of "sensory knowl- itinerary.

    This is indeed one of ' the architectural spaces that enclosed them. Few can decide what a school or a library livan's "form follows function. Whether cultural or commercial, programs have have seen architecture as a means by which institutions long ceased to be determinate, since they change all the could manifest and solidify their presence in society. In doing time-while the building is designed, during its construc- so, the disjunction between various terms of the architec- tion, and, of course, after completion.

    At the Pare de la tural equation-space, program, movement-had been sup- Villette, one building was first designed as a gardening center, pressed. Not to include the uncertainties of use, action, and then reorganized as a restaurant by the time the concrete movement in the definition of architecture meant that the framework was completed, and finally used-successfully- architecture's ability to be a factor of social change was sim- as a children's painting and sculpture workshop.

    What has been true for very large buildings Similarly, the most significant so-called de- the ever-changing use of warehouses or of the new genera- constructive architectural challenges against order, hierar- tion of American "big footprint" skyscrapers also applies to chy, and stability in the last two decades have been praised the smallest constructions.

    There is no longer a causal rela- or attacked by critics for what they called a "style" or the tionship between buildings and their contentI their useI andI "pursuit of aesthetic experimentation. Space and its usage unwittingly at risk of ignoring, not to say suppressing, the are two opposed notions that exclude one another, generating underlying discussion about program and use in this work, an endless array of uncertainties. Not unlike developments and, by extension, about the larger social, political, and even in modern scientific knowledge that dismantled the me- economic implications of architecture.

    By downplaying the chanistic and determinate vision of classical scienceI here programmatic dimension, they were repeating what they had we see disorder, collisions, and unpredictabilities entering accused others of doing in staging the International the field of architecture. Not only is there no simple relation the new developments in architecture reside.

    Yet we should remember that there is spaces through new technology and structures, or-to use no social or political change without the movements and the title of a conference at Columbia University-through programs that transgress supposedly stable institutionality, "glue and microchips" and events through new program- architectural or otherwise; that there is no architecture with- matic, functional, or social relations, through the spectacle out everyday life, movement, and action; and that it is the of everyday life.

    One argument for the interchangeability of most dynamic aspects of their disjunctions that suggest a the two terms can be found in the new media technology new definition of architecture. The definition of architecture as simulta- neously space and event brings us back to political concerns, or more precisely, to the question of space as related to social practice.

    If architecture is neither pure form nor solely de- termined by socioeconomic or functional constraints, the search for its definition must always expand to an urban dimension. The complex social, economic, and political mechanisms that govern the expansion and contraction of the contemporary city are not without effect on architecture and its societal use.

    Space always marks the territory, the milieu of social practice.

    Would we ever wish it to do so, our society could not get out of its space. Even though it produces space, society is always its prisoner. Because space is the common framework for all activities, it is often used politi- cally in order to give an appearance of coherence through the concealment of its social contradictions.

    The contemporary world is a dislocated space of constraints that may find few com- 22 23 Space essays written in and Fireworks, Manifesto, Most people concerned with architecture feel some sort of disillusion and dismay.

    None of the early utopian ideals of the twentieth century has materialized, none of its social aims has succeeded. Blurred by reality, the ideals have turned into redevelopment nightmares and the aims into bureau- cratic policies. The split between social reality and utopian dream has been total, the gap between economic constraints and the illusion of all-solving technique absolute.

    Pointed Space - out by critics who knew the limits of architectural remedies, means of escaping the paradox by shifting the actual nature this historical split has now been bypassed by attempts to of the debate, as, for example, through politics, and the means reformulate the concepts of architecture.

    In the process, a that alter the paradox altogether the Pyramid and the new split appears. More complex, it is not the symptom of Labyrinth. Etymologically, to define space means both "to make tecture and of its essential element: space. By focusing on space distinct" and "to state the precise nature of space.

    While art and architecture have been con- ity of questioning the nature of space and at the same time cerned essentially with the first sense, philosophy, mathe- experiencing a spatial praxis. I have no intention of reviewing architectural trends and terial thing in which all material things are located" or as their connection to the arts.

    My general emphasis on space "something subjective with which the mind categorizes rather than on disciplines art, architecture, semiology, etc. The merg- tradition according to which space and time were "cate- ing of disciplines is too worn a path to provide a stimulating gories" that enabled the classification of "sensory knowl- itinerary. Instead, I would like to focus attention on the edge.

    Object before the subject, it present paradox of space and on the nature of its terms, trying dominated senses and bodies by containing them. Was space to indicate how one might go beyond this self-contradiction, inherent to the totality of what exists? This was the question even if the answer should prove intolerable.

    I begin by re- of space for Spinoza and Leibniz. Returning to the old notion calling the historical context of this paradox. I will examine of category, Kant described space as neither matter nor the first those trends that consider architecture as a thing of the set of objective relations between things but as an ideal in- mind, as a dematerialized or conceptual discipline, with its ternal structure, an a priori consciousness, an instrument of linguistic or morphological variations the Pyramid ; second, knowledge.

    Subsequent mathematical developments on empirical research that concentrates on the senses, on the non-Euclidean spaces and their topologies did not eliminate experience of space as well as on the relationship between the philosophical discussions.

    These reappeared with the space and praxis the Labyrinth ; and third, the contradictory widening gap between abstract spaces and society. But space nature of these two terms and the difference between the was generally accepted as a cosa mentale, a sort of all- 28 29 Space - embracing set with subsets such as literary space, ideological determinants of the postwar period and aware of recent lin- space, and psychoanalytical space. Architecturally, to define space to make space distinct known code of space with its own syntax and meaning.

    Did literally meant "to determine boundaries. Was space a condi- twentieth century. But by it meant Raum with all its tion or a formulation? To say that language preceded these overtones of German esthetics, with the notion of Raum- spaces was certainly not obvious: human activities leave empfindung or "felt volume.

    So was there a relationship had merged with the idea of composition to become a three- between space and language, could one "read" a space?

    Was dimensional continuum, capable of metrical subdivision there a dialectic between social praxis and spatial forms? From then on, ar- chitectural space was consistently seen as a uniformly ex- 5. Yet the gap remained between ideal space the product tended material to be modeled in various ways, and the of mental processes and real space the product of social history of architecture as the history of spatial concepts.

    Although such a distinction is certainly not ideolog- From the Greek "power of interacting volumes" to the Ro- ically neutral, we shall see that it is in the nature of archi- man "hollowed-out interior space," from the modern "inter- tecture. As a result, the only successful attempts to bridge action between inner and outer space" to the concept of this philosophical gap were those that introduced historical "transparency," historians and theorists referred to space as or political concepts such as "production," in the wide sense a three-dimensional lump of matter.

    Much research in France and in To draw a parallel between the philosophies Italy opposed space "as a pure form" to space "as a social of a period and the spatial concepts of architecture is always product," space "as an intermediary" to space "as a means tempting, but never was it done as obsessively as during the of reproduction of the mode of production.

    Giedion related Einstein's theory of relativity to cub- This politico-philosophical critique had the ist painting, and cubist planes were translated into architec- advantage of giving an all-embracing approach to space, ture in Le Corbusier's Villa Stein at Garches.

    By the late s, freed from the technological tated spaces. But by giving an overall priority to historical e Architectural Paradox 30 31 Space - processes, it often reduced space to one of the numerous building that escapes the utility of space, a building that socioeconomic products that were perpetuating a political would have no other purpose than "architecture.

    Before proceeding to a detailed examination of the am- tural autonomy. After more than half a century of scientific bivalence of the definition of space, it is perhaps useful to pretense, of system theories that defined it as the intersection consider briefly this particular expression of space in archi- of industrialization, sociology, politics, and ecology, archi- tecture. Its territory extends from an all-embracing "every- tecture wonders if it can exist without having to find its thing is architecture" to Hegel's minimal definition.

    This meaning or its justification in some purposeful exterior need. When Hegel The Pyramid: Stating the Nature of Space or The Dematerialization elaborated his aesthetic theory, 2 he conventionally distin- of Architecture guished five arts and gave them an order: architecture, sculp- ture, painting, music, and poetry.

    He started with 7. I must add here that too often architects do sive terms could be intensely pleasurable or. Allies could be found in those other possible route to bypass some of the obstacles that accom. Over the next decade I kept ments from other disciplines not only forget the inevitable exploring the implications of what had first been intuitions: This is indeed one of ' the architectural spaces that enclosed them. I tried to develop these con. The research in other fields corrob- architectural intuition.

    But I also needed these allies to support a key ample. Quite often posing literary or film motives into architecture. As I had written in the introduction to The Manhattan Transcripts: It could also be intensely social and political.

    286549922-Bernard-Tschumi-Architecture-and-Disjunction.pdf

    Arts Contemporains in Tourcoing in northern France. In this sense. In no way was I interested in translating or trans- be either applied to a project or derived from it. In other words. Quite the this distinction cannot be made so clearly.

    Of course. I would claim that architecture was used "a contre- emploi". It could explore and expand the opposite: It is paradoxical that three thousand could be considered as a form of knowledge comparable to years of architectural ideology have tried to assert the very mathematics or philosophy. Not to include the uncertainties of use. Introduction discussion on architecture and power ultimately echoed Sul.

    Space and its usage unwittingly at risk of ignoring. What has been true for very large buildings Similarly. By downplaying the chanistic and determinate vision of classical scienceI here programmatic dimension. Whether cultural or commercial. Few can decide what a school or a library livan's "form follows function.

    Not only is there no simple relation the new developments in architecture reside. At the Pare de la tural equation-space. There is no longer a causal rela- or attacked by critics for what they called a "style" or the tionship between buildings and their contentI their useI andI "pursuit of aesthetic experimentation. Not unlike developments and. In doing time-while the building is designed. One argument for the interchangeability of most dynamic aspects of their disjunctions that suggest a the two terms can be found in the new media technology new definition of architecture.

    The complex social. Space always marks the territory. Yet we should remember that there is spaces through new technology and structures. Would we ever wish it to do so. The definition of architecture as simulta- neously space and event brings us back to political concerns.

    If architecture is neither pure form nor solely de- termined by socioeconomic or functional constraints. Even though it produces space. The contemporary world is a dislocated space of constraints that may find few com- 22 Because space is the common framework for all activities.

    None of the early utopian ideals of the twentieth century has materialized. The split between social reality and utopian dream has been total.

    The Architectural Paradox 1. Blurred by reality. Most people concerned with architecture feel some sort of disillusion and dismay. Space - out by critics who knew the limits of architectural remedies. More complex. Returning to the old notion calling the historical context of this paradox.

    The merg.

    Architecture and Disjunction [PDF]

    Was space to indicate how one might go beyond this self-contradiction. This was the question even if the answer should prove intolerable. By focusing on space distinct" and "to state the precise nature of space. These reappeared with the space and praxis the Labyrinth. In the process. Object before the subject.

    While art and architecture have been con- ity of questioning the nature of space and at the same time cerned essentially with the first sense.

    Subsequent mathematical developments on empirical research that concentrates on the senses. I will examine of category. I begin by re.

    I would like to focus attention on the edge. My general emphasis on space "something subjective with which the mind categorizes rather than on disciplines art. Kant described space as neither matter nor the first those trends that consider architecture as a thing of the set of objective relations between things but as an ideal in- mind.

    But space nature of these two terms and the difference between the was generally accepted as a cosa mentale. I have no intention of reviewing architectural trends and terial thing in which all material things are located" or as their connection to the arts. Was space a condi- twentieth century. This politico-philosophical critique had the ist painting. But by it meant Raum with all its tion or a formulation?

    To say that language preceded these overtones of German esthetics. Space - embracing set with subsets such as literary space. From then on. Giedion related Einstein's theory of relativity to cub. But by giving an overall priority to historical e Architectural Paradox 30 Despite these avoiding the previous dissociation between the "particular" space-time concepts.

    Was dimensional continuum. As a result. Yet the gap remained between ideal space the product tended material to be modeled in various ways. Did literally meant "to determine boundaries. By the late s. So was there a relationship had merged with the idea of composition to become a three. Although such a distinction is certainly not ideolog- From the Greek "power of interacting volumes" to the Ro.

    Much research in France and in To draw a parallel between the philosophies Italy opposed space "as a pure form" to space "as a social of a period and the spatial concepts of architecture is always product. Before proceeding to a detailed examination of the am. He started with 7. After more than half a century of scientific bivalence of the definition of space.

    This meaning or its justification in some purposeful exterior need. Space - processes. His embarrassment did not really have shown a renewed interest in the idea of playing an active proceed from his conservative classification but was caused role in fulfilling ideological and philosophical functions with by a question that had haunted architects for centuries: Hegel's uneasiness in building as the sole and inevitable aim of their activity.

    Just as El Lissitzky and the Vesnin the functional and technical characteristics of a house or a '. Little concerned with Hegel's ''artistic supplement. But the difficulty o prevalent mode of production. They these first pages is striking. When Hegel The Pyramid: Stating the Nature of Space or The Dematerialization elaborated his aesthetic theory. Was architectural discourse a discourse about whatever did parable to the early conceptual artists' rejection of the not relate to the "building" itself?

    Hegel concluded in the commodity market and its alienating effects. Where did the shed end and architecture begin? Its territory extends from an all-embracing "every. Like conceptual art in the mids. The dematerialization of architecture into the realm of Our forefathers only built their hut after they had conceived concepts was more the characteristic of a period than of any its image.

    Escaping the predictable ideological com- either as a withdrawal from reality or as a takeover of new promises of building. The renewed im- stitutional opposition. But in the process it had become were already rhetorical questions in I way with architecture altogether.

    This production of the mind. The medium used for the communica- Although some architects. Vitruvius takes the effect for the cause. This definition contains a crass error. Space was architecture.

    This quest for identity revealed that the conveniently confirming to architects that spatial concepts architect's freedom did not necessarily coincide with the were made by the writings and drawings of space as much as freedom of architecture.

    One must conceive in order to make. The questions. Thus it developed in various constitutes architecture. Manfredo Tafuri can thus de- prominently. Analogies with language Ultimately architecture frees itself from reality altogether. Freed from reality. Space - architectural elements of the past. Not only does it refer to itself became: Investigations into truly autonomous organism. The question contrasts. So the ontological bias injected new blood into a concept that al- language is closed in on itself.

    In a misleading. Forms do not follow functions Hegel's "supplement" received the support of structural lin- but refer to other forms. Among these linguistic analogies. The first theory claims that the Hegelian "supplement. As soon as it is distinguished from the simple building. They might. Removal from the exhilarating differ- ing of architecture.. Positive space. Unfolding against the pro- produce one itself.

    The Labyrinth: Making Space Distinct or The Experience of Space This purely sensory approach has been a recurrent theme pis century's understanding and appreciation of space.

    This is not without recalling the perverse ences between the apse and the nave of Ely Cathedral. Architectural theory shares with art theory stract connectioi. The materiality of my body one whether it be the world or society?

    Must architecture I both coincides with and struggles with the materiality of create its own model. My body carries in itself spatial properties and spatial answers inevitably imply some archetype. My voyage into the abstract realm of proceed from concepts similar to verbal systems.

    But as this arche- determination: Space is real. Space be able to reach me and understand me. It It thus becomes some sort of an essence jections of reason. If it cannot imitate an order.

    Architecture becomes a cosa looms bury. It hears as much as it sees. Soho and this ultimate model of reason. So the architect is once again "the Pyramid. It is in recent works that the recurring etym- The attempt to trigger a new perception of "cal distinction appears at its strongest.

    Reduced to the space reopened a basic philosophical question. By restricting visual and physical the ceiling. German esthetic overtones of the Raumempfindung theory. When the dancers Trisha Brown and Simone Forti re- process: But the most interesting part of such performance space to follow the art-language practice.

    This operation of reason. The parallel made between the dan- was important. This reversal. Doug Wheeler. But how do you relate nessed by twentieth-century architecture. Robert Iwin. Their don't really see the cube. There was no way in. Suffice it to say all these perceptions to one single object?

    Is it through an that current conversation seems to fluctuate between a the operation of. You do not play with elaborate spatial articulations. If it could be argued as the underlying discussion on the "nature of space" in that the discourse about art was art and thus could be exhib- neral.

    You may see a corner. Space You touch a wall. The and science was seen as the means to find an exit. Whether such spaces might be seen as reminiscent of the us but that we use in order to break their surround. The in opposition to the remote exterior space and social context.

    Space perception to the faintest of all stimulations. In "de. The Paradox of Architecture matters is their double content: The almost totally removed sensory definition in- evitably throws the viewers back on themselves. The architec- where all sensations. To single out particular areas of concern. It is hardly surprising. Just as language gives us words that encircle Bataille suggested that its only effect space.

    By a series of exclusions that become significant only was to transform the Labyrinth into a banal prison. Denis Hollier. Raumempfindung theory. Rejecting materiality of the body coincides with the materiality of the such an interpretation. But the concept of architecture toward the general organization of "clubs" and community buildings proposed not only re. Not affecting the de. Aware that spatial organization may temporarily that speak only of themselves.

    A common accusation of anal. These have been well researched in the past few years. Space and of a sensual experience the Labyrinth is no different. We shall therefore briefly con. Such studies underline the Not surprisingly. Their attempts to find a socially relevant. Aimed at redistributing the capitalistic division of labor.

    On the forms of private expression. This nihilistic prerequisite for social and economic change was a desperate attempt to use the architect's mode Hegel's value and cannot be integrated in the production cycle. Space Until After that fact. Does the social have to define it alone. This must begin with a description of the apparent logical and financial dependency. Rather than an obscure general organization of building processes.

    If it sanctuarizes itself in an art-for-art's-sake po. Yet it is the unreal or unrealistic position of the artist artistic supplement or a cultural justification for financial or architect that may be its very reality.

    I would therefore suggest that there has never been any the six faces of the cube and real space at the same time but reason to doubt the necessity of architecture. If the architectural tually exclusive terms of architecture requires some eluci- piece renounces its autonomy by recognizing its latent ideo.

    I am well aware that commitment. In view of the present-day polarization of ontolog- tecture seems to have little choice between autonomy and ical discourse and sensual experience. Its radicalism constitutes its very strength in a Unless we search for an escape from architecture into the society where profit is prevalent.

    So architecture seems to survive only when To restate my point. In rely on the paradigm of the ancient precedent. It is useless. If its role is not defined by society. Or did it? Does architecture. Except for the last manipulations. The Pyramid. We cannot both experience and think that course of this argument. The effect of the of the Pyramid. Along paradox. But remember: Icarus flew away. The dream of the Pyramid. Labyrinth cannot be dominated. It always misses something.

    The security of archetypes.

    So statement. But the real importance of the Labyrinth and of its spatial with its ultimate punchline. One is condemned to it and cannot go outside and see the involves the dissolution of the dialectic and an incomplete whole. In the the way of feeling. This means. Architecture constitutes the subject.

    Before leaving this brief exploration of architecture as ments. The top of the Pyramid is ture is always the expression of a lack. Space sists: One can par- tectural reality building defeats architectural theory while ticipate in and share the fundamentals of the Labyrinth. This tecture reality is not experienced as an abstract object already conclusion may be intolerable to philosophers.

    So theory and praxis one's perception is only part of the Labyrinth as it manifests may be dialectic to one another. Unfortunately not. Architecture is both being and nonbeing. One can never see it in totality. It may be intol- dent but mutually exclusive. Defined by its questioning. If system plus excess is one of its symp- toms. In the past.

    286549922-Bernard-Tschumi-Architecture-and-Disjunction.pdf

    It may now provide the cultural model. It suggests new oppositions between dissociated terms and new relations between ho- mogeneous spaces. Erfahrung and close to Bataille's "interior experience.

    Just as eroticism is the of production. As long as social practice rejects the paradox of ideal and real space. Opposed to Hegel's architecture rule and the experience of pleasure.

    It introduces new articulations between the inside and the outside. To talk about the Labyrinth and its praxis pleasure of excess rather than the excess of pleasure.

    Space crete human activity-as a praxis. Like eroticism. For it is only by recogniz- ing the architectural rule that the subject of space will reach the depth of experience and its sensuality. This immediacy does not give precedence to the experiential term. This "experience" may have repercussions that go far beyond man as its "subject. By changing the This importance of the subject is in clear opposition to all prevalent attitudes toward space and its subject.

    I If space is a material thing. Questions of Space 1. Space 1. Is there a language of space a space- 3. Or of any concept? Is space thus one of the structures that ex- 2. Space 3. If space is just a thing. Space 4. Architecture and Transgression Transgression opens the door into what lies beyond the limits usu- ally observed.

    Bernard Tschumi. Advertisements for Architecture. Transgres- sion is complementary to the profane world. Georges Bataille. The controversy indirectly re- sensual experience of space and as a spatial praxis.

    Whether I use excesses. Although society secretly delights in crime. A debate at a conceptual architecture confer- this essay will attempt to demonstrate that transgression is ence in London 1 where the majority of contributors predict- a whole. Boullee's aphorism that "the production of the mind typologies.

    Even on an analysis of historical tradition or on a New Man as when the words of the printed page are metamorphosed into the twenties' architects conceived it. Words and from Durand to modem movement writers.

    From the systeme des slogans sprayed on city walls. They are theory is primarily the elaboration of rules. If the political implications of the production of Part One: The Paradox building had been abundantly emphasized in the years fol- lowing the crisis. On the contrary. Space One issue rarely raised in architecture is that of taboo and The very fact that something is written here makes it part transgression.

    From Vitruvius to Quatremere de Quincy. This emphasis on what Hegel called the language and history. The chief characteris. By definition archi- activity. Was Whether these theorists stated that architecture always rep.

    Was the only alternative to the paradox silence. Space then maintaining. Or useful. But if everything was architecture. And if so. Initially intended as an ideological means of stress. The com- Austrian groups of the late s was an attempt to dema. Spinoza versus architecture. And by nature it is also universal. They lie. The experience of the liar paradox is like and the I.

    Not to and real space is seen differently in the second correspon- dence. Eroticism is no differ- ent. To explore it. Sensuality is as different from lyzing consequences of a paradox that recalls philosophical eroticism as a simple spatial perception is different from battles of the past-Descartes versus Hume.

    It is the correspondence of eroticism. Architecture is the ultimate erotic ob- flected. The Second Manifesto of two worlds: The paradox is literally speculative. Just Part Two: Rationalists versus Raumempfindung symbol. Each meaning has always to be taken Thus. It may be be confused with sensuality. Archi- and the incommunicable cease to be perceived in a contradictory tecture has the same status. Just as the sensual experience of space does not way around this paradox. This second correspondence is immensely general and 70 71 Architecture and Transgression.

    It is even more tempting. From being respectful to seeking and its theorists rarely negate the form that the society ex. Space inevitably contains the present argument as it would contain related to the phase of decomposition.

    Bataille claimed that 72 73 Architecture and Transgression. Not surprisingly. Laos's celebrated attack on the intrinsic crimi. Those who in visited the houses.

    In fact. As a putrefying flesh. And architecture cency and respectability. The anguish about death. Life was seen as a negation of death-it con. Death is tolerated only when the bones are white: It is nothing less than the analogy of life-and.

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